Every day, cell phones evolve and bring with them a durable and renewed technology fulfilling the basic needs of a human being. This tool is fundamental for relationships being a very efficient method of communication. With the support of Nanotechnology, changes are being made to the screens, tiny microphones are incorporated in order to implement the operating systems like Android and Apple.
The rise of cellular technology is at its best, the involvement of large companies such as Google and Apple in the market have accelerated the development of multifunction devices with revolutionary operating systems, which in the future may have the power of a computer.
The evolution of mobile phones has been vertiginous in the last two decades, thanks to the efforts of scientific innovation, these devices have transformed the way we communicate by allowing the connection and access to different types of information simultaneously. In 2015, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) revealed that globally there are around 7,100 lines linked to mobile phones, meaning that for every 100 people there are 97 cellphones, a figure that almost equals to the world population. According to the United Nations, by 2020, the world population is estimated to be around 7.8 billion and 70% of the people on the planet have mobile devices.
The concept of a cell phones began to be developed at the end of World War II, its goal was to enable wireless communication using the electromagnetic spectrum, radio waves that did not exceed 60 MHz. The first mobile cell phone model, the “Nokia Mobira Senator”, which weighed 9.8 kg; for its implementation it was necessary to create an additional infrastructure with switches, transmission equipment and stations to guarantee its operational funtionality. The economic and social advances in the world have generated the need to streamline work and optimize the communication processes, the industry has developed technological instruments that adapt to the demand of consumers, those who need multifunctional devices, which comply with its primary goal and also provide additional benefits.
The first prototypes of cell phones were well known for their huge size and weight, nowadays they are increasingly smaller and lighter, things that have been replaced by devices that only fulfilled a function. In a smart phone, also known as “Smartphone”, different elements are integrated that permit everyday functions such as: clock, calculator, alarms, notes, voice recorder, audio and video player, camera, games, among others. With the development of cellphone applications the mobile industry has changed dramatically, opening the way to functions that were unimaginable in the past. At present the boom of the applications is in its greatest demand, since you can download them from any smart phone.
Android operating system, When two big ones come together.
Android, is a standalone operating system designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, televisions and automobiles. This revolutionary system is the result of the union of two large technology creation companies, Google and Linux, the first is a company specialized in products and services such as search engines, e-mail, books, news and other services related to the Internet and software of electronic devices. The second is a free software and open source operating system that is developed by several partners around the world. In its beginnings the operating system was created by Android Inc, company that Google financed in its beginnings and later in 2005 decided to buy it.
Currently this operating system is declared to be the one most used in the world, with more than 1.400 million users. The success is due to the joint colaboration of different cellphone manufacturers, ensuring the independence and confidentiality of the phone’s hardware and software, providing the possibility of building a free operating system on the network. In order for the operating system to execute, it needs certain codes which are present in each device and thus gets the cell phone to work.
Nanotechnology at the service of the communication
Nanotechnology is the study, creation and application of materials through the control and modification of matter at the nano scale. With the incorporation of Nanotechnology in the devices for communication, research is being done on the manufacture of nanomaterials that will allow to improve the physical qualities and optimize the mechanisms so that the internal functions of the cellphones are executed better. The main objective is to contribute to reduction of these devices taking them to their practical limit; it is intended to reduce the costs of some components, increase functionality and reduce energy consumption. The cellphone manufacturing companies are working on projects that aim to make a difference in such a competitive market, where any added function can influence the buyer while making a decision. With the help of nanotechnology, they seek to give screens flexibility, design transparent elements, surfaces that self-clean and incorporate tiny microphones to avoid interference and better capture the sounds, besides long lasting batteries that charge in minutes.
Did you know that the food system of the total world’s population depends entirely upon the bees?
The bees are the second most important factor, after the wind in the process of reproducing trees and plants, they contribute about 90% towards the pollination of the world’s crops. They are extremely important for us to have fruits and vegetables at our dinner tables such as apples, melons, almonds, carrots and eggplants, amongst other foods that require the help of the bees for the fertilization of plants that bear fruit. These insects also help us to decorate the green landscapes of our lifes and our gardens by filling them with flowers.
The death tolls of bees have been an agonizing issue for several years, in the United States and several European countries about 80% of the hives have disappeared. Einstein once said: “The entire human race would disappear four years after the death of the bees of the world”.
In Antarctica, the coldest and least habitable continent, is the only place in the world where there are no bees; these insects have great ability to adapt to different types of vegetation and climates being present in almost every part of the planet fulfilling a fundamental work in the nature. There are currently more than 20,000 species of these insects in the world and have shown to be able to communicate with each other, taking into account the position of the sun through a dance that tells their companions of the hive as to in which direction they can find food sources. For this study and discovery Karl R. Von Frisch Austrian Otologist and Zoologist was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1973.
In addition to their fundamental process of pollination for producing food, bees have other important functions that they perform in our society; besides producing honey, royal jelly, wax and propolis, they help us in medical treatments for diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism, herniated discs, sprains, fractures, tension and circulation problems. The mortality figures of bees have had a alarming increase for the past several years, in United States and in several European countries about 80% of the hives have disappeared. What worries these countries even more is that due to their climatic conditions they depend on the seasons for the reproduction and the birth of these bees.
Studies conducted at Pennsylvania State University (USA), and other conducted at the National Bee Unit in York (England), have shown us that there are several factors that are involved that are causing the disappearance of Apis melifera, commonly known as the European honey Bee. In first place, global warming and climate changes of the world have caused the environmental conditions to be catastrophic, causing the incubation periods, having to withstand tougher and aggressive temperatures making it difficult for them to grow. Studies have shown that the presence of different pesticides, herbicides and fungicides are largely responsible for the crisis that we are facing today.
The bees are slowly being poisoned in a cocktail of pollen and different poisons that are being used to prevent fungi, pests and weeds from damaging the crops. This has created that not only adult bees are affected, but also larvae and young bees that feed on the pollen which is carried to their hives. The presence of these toxic substances in the body of these insects, create problems in the transmission of messages and as a result they forget how to get back home. It also affects their immune system making them prone to diseases and reducing their life expectancy; This phenomenon is commonly known as the “Colony Collapsing Disorder”.
Adding to this, the presence of the parasite commonly known as the Varroa mite, which is highly aggressive with its ability to transmit deadly diseases and being resistant to the potent pesticides used in crops, it has become the deadly enemy of the bee and honey.
“The situation in Colombia”
The problem of the high number of deaths amongst the bees that has gone around the world is also present in our country. Beekeepers from the state of Sucre and Santander have informed the Ministry of Agriculture about the death of bees that had been presentied since 2012. Both of the situations are associated with the use of agrochemicals for cotton and coffee crops respectively.
Since the Stone Age, man has been concerned with solving his inquisitiveness about the origin of the earth. Today, there are theories that sort of provide answers to that big question. The Big Bang for example, points out that the universe was created about 14 billion years ago with a big explosion. According to National Geographic, this hypothesis states that “the universe expanded with an unbelievable speed from its origin, which was the size of a stone with an astronomical impact, a trillionth part of a second after the big bang.” The expansion has apparently continued, but a whole lot slower.
Creation, on the other hand, indicates that the origin of the earth and all living beings are the product of concrete acts of divine creation, where there is a God, who is the author of everything we see and touch, faith is the essential plot of this fact, that there are no scientific evidences to prove this theory. It has been known that since the origin of the earth, it has housed various species of living beings that we may not really know. Man, who is known to be as a thoughtful and reasonable being, who has used the earth in various ways to meet his needs. An example of this is how in past centuries the natives built their huts, where they made use of materials such as earth and water, mixing them together to form a homogeneous mass until it formed the mud. In the same way, they made use of this element, planting products for their own food and for their animals.
The process was similar to the one that is being used today, first you select the ground where you wish to plant the chosen vegetable, and next you would dig a hole, where you finally sow the seed that will grow into vegetables later. As the products grow, this vegetation is responsible for producing photosynthesis, which provides the oxygen, purifying the environment and feeding itself. Hence the importance of not contaminating the land, since the vegetation is responsible for renewing the air by eliminating carbon dioxide. The earth is so important to man that without it there would be no life which is how, since ancient times, it has been given a feminine and receptive role. Feminine, because it supplies all those agricultural products, since its fertility is a mystery and a it is a transcendent resource; the nutrients in the field are those that provide us a healthy life.
The earth is the auspicious instrument for the conditioning of the ecosystem; the ecosystem has a dependence on the top part of the soil and fresh water. The life of every living being depends largely on its maintenance. On the other hand, the earth represents stability, because the life cycle of every living being will always depend on the earth. Have you asked yourself, what would the man be without the earth? Perhaps we wouldn’t have had any of the features like the ones we have today, because it is here where the mother earth gives us every stage of our development cycle, birth, growth, reproduction and death.
The earth is the mother of strength, justice and law, the basis of the physical world and the habitat of the spirit in manifestation. Nowadays, various organizations have come up proposing policies for the care and conservation of the planet earth. The innumerable sources of water, in most cases mountains that are magical and charming treasures, which must be cared for properly, because these places are designated by the earth to offer its residents guarantees of survival. In addition, groups like the NGOs have been aware of how much we owe the earth, and as with our excessive consumption we are contributing to its wear and tear.
It is time to become aware of its conservation, because giving a thought based on sustainable development, is to think about leaving our future generations with an environment that is favorable for optimal living conditions. The United Nations, having knowledge of the situation that we are creating all kinds of pollutions, has implemented the strategy of sustainable development, seeking a better world for everyone. The international community, realizing the importance of caring for the earth has emphasized designing decrees which is aimed at achieving conservation of the planet.
That is why the O.D.S (sustainable development objectives) denotes the importance of all countries in the world working as a team to search for a green planet, where globalization and technology will generate positive changes that are directed to its maintenance. The Times of Colombia joins the campaign of care and preservation of the land, because we belong to it and live by it.